(a) Contracts based on or involving the payment or transfer of bribes ("corruption money", "secret commissions", "pots-de-vin", "kickbacks") are void.
(b) Any intentional offer, promise or transfer of any undue pecuniary or other advantage, whether directly or through intermediaries, to a foreign public official or person who directs or works, in any capacity, for a private sector entity, for the benefit of that official or private party or for a third party, in order that the official or private party acts or refrains from acting in relation to the performance of his official or other duties, in order to obtain or retain business or other improper advantages in the conduct of international business constitutes bribery.
Arbitral AwardsAd Hoc-Award of 1993,  ASA Bull. 210 et seq.CCIG Award, 1989,  ASA. Bull. 216 et seq.Himpurna California Energy Ltd. v PT. (Persero) Perusahaan Listruik Negara, UNCITRAL Ad Hoc-Award of 4 May 1999, YCA XXV (2000), 13 et seq.ICC Award No. 1110 of 1963 by Gunnar Lagergren, YCA 1996, at 47 et seq. (also published in: Arb.Int'l 1994, at 282 et seq.).ICC Award No. 11307 of 2003, YCA 2008, 24 et seq.ICC Award No. 12290, Collection of ICC Arbitral Awards 2008-2011, at Page 831 et seq.ICC Award No. 14470, Collection of ICC Arbitral Awards 2008-2011, at page 945 et seq.ICC Award No. 3916, Coll. ICC Arb. Awards 1982, 507 et seq.ICC Award No. 4145 (Second Interim Award), YCA 1987, at 97 et seq. (also published in: Clunet 1985, at 985 et seq.)ICC Award No. 5622, YCA 1994, at 105 et seq. (also published in: Rev. d. Arb. 1992, at 773 et seq.)ICC Award No. 5943, Clunet 1996, at 1014 et seq.ICC Award No. 6497, YCA 1999, at 71 et seq.ICC Award No. 7047, ASA Bull. 1995, at 301 et seq.ICC Award No. 8891, Clunet 2000, 1076 et seq.World Duty Free Co Ltd v. The Republic of Kenya, ICSID Case No. ARB/00/7
Court DecisionsBGH RIW 1985, at 653 et seq.Cour d'appel de Paris (1re Ch. C), 30 September 1993, Rev. Arb. 1994, 359 et seq.
DoctrineAlbanesi, Christian, Jolivet, Emmanuel, Dealing with Corruption in Arbitration: A Review of ICC Experience, ICC Special Supplement 2013: Tackling Corruption in Arbitration at page 27 et seq.Dalhuisen, Jan H. - Legal Orders and Their Manifestation: The Operation of the International Commercial and Financial Legal Order and Its Lex Mercatoria, (2006) 24 Berk J Intl L 129.Derains, Yves, note to ICC Award No. 2730, Clunet 1984, at 918 et seq.Domingo, Ortega, Rodriguez-Antolin, Zambrana, Principios de Derecho Global, Navarra, 2006Fouchard Gaillard Goldman on International Commercial Arbitration (edited by Emmanuel Gaillard and John Savage) The Hague 1999Gaillard, Emmanuel, Thirty Years of Lex Mercatoria: Towards the Discriminating Application of Transnational Rules, in: van den Berg (ed), Planning Efficient Arbitration Proceedings, at 570 et seq.Hascher, Dominique, Note to ICC Award No. 8891, Cluent 2000, 1083 et seq.Hascher, Dominique, note to ICC Award No.5943, Clunet 1996, at 1017 et seq.Krause, Daniel Marcus/ Vogel, Frank, Bestechungsbekämpfung im internationalen Geschäftsverkehr, RIW 1999, at 488 et seq.Kreindler, Richard, Competence-Competence in the Face of Illegality in Contracts and Arbitration Agreements, Hague Academy of International Law, 2013Levi, Michael/Raphael, Monty, Anti-corruption - a signpost for transactional lawyers, B.L.I. 1999, at 80 et seq.Loquin, La réalité des usages du commerce international, RIDéco 1989, at 163 et seq.Makinwa, O. Abiola, Civil Remedies for International Corruption: The Role of International Arbitration, in: Meyer, Olaf (ed.), The Civil Law Consequences of Corruption, 2009, S. 257.Mourre, Alexis, Arbitration and Criminal Law: Reflections on the Duties of the Arbitrator, Arbitration International, Volume 22 (2006), No. 1 at page 95 et seq.Mustill, Michael, The New Lex Mercatoria: The First Twenty-five Years, Arb.Int'l 1988, at 86 et seq.Nietzer, Wolf M., Die rechtliche Behandlung von Schmiergeldzahlungen in den USA ("Foreign Corrupt Practices Act") und Deutschland, DAJV-NL 2/98, at 43 et seq.Raeschke-Kessler/Gottwald, Korruption undinternationales Vertragsrecht - Rechtliche Aspekte der Korruption im Bau- undInfrastruktursektor mit AuslandsbezugScherer, Matthias, Circumstantial evidence in corruption before international tribunals, in: International Arbitration Law Review, Issue 2, London 2002.Sethe, Rolf, Zivilrechtliche Rechtsfolgen der Korruption am Beispiel von Bankgeschäften, WM 1998, at 2309 et seq.
International LegislationCouncil of Europe Civil Convention onCorruptionOECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. (Fulltext available at: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/4/18/38028044.pdf)United Nations Convention against Corruption
MiscellaneousWorld Duty Free Company LTD v. The Republic of Kenya, Application for dismissal of the claimant's claims with prejudice, 19th March 2003, in: Mealey's International Arbitration Report, Vol. 19, Nr. 8, 2004.World Duty Free Company LTD v. The Republic of Kenya, The Republic of Kenya‘s Response, 18 August 2004, in: Mealey's International Arbitration Report, Vol. 19, Nr. 8, 2004.
Miscellaneous LegislationICC Rules of Conduct to Combat Extortion and Bribery in International Business Transactions
Model TermsJoint Operating Agreement For UKCS Licence No. P. [ ... ] Block [ ... ] (see: http://www.oilandgas.org.uk/issues/stdagreements/worddocs/joint_operating_agreement.doc)
National LegislationSpanish Código Civil
No Seller nor to the Management Sellers' Knowledge any employee of any Acquired Entity has, directly or indirectly, in connection with the Acquired Entities' business or proposed business, made, authorized, offered, or agreed to make any payment, transfer of value, or gift to any Person connected with or related to any Governmental Authority or to any other Person with knowledge or unreasonable disregard that such Person will act as a conduit for otherwise prohibited payments or gifts, except payments or contributions required or allowed by applicable Law.