No. XII.1 - Distribution of burden of proof

The burden of proof rests on the party who advances a proposition affirmatively ("actori incumbit onus probandi").

This Principle means that a claimant bears the burden of proof for the facts which support his claim, e.g. the facts supporting a claim for damages, while the respondent bears the burden of proof for the facts supporting his defences, e.g. the defence of disenrichment against a claim for restoration of an unjust enrichment.

Please cite as: "Commentary to Trans-Lex Principle ,"
Arbitral Awards
Ad Hoc-Award of October 27, 1989 and June 30, 1990, Antoine Biloune (Syria) and Marine Drive Complex Ltd. (Ghana) v. Ghana Investment Centre and the Government of Ghana, YCA 1994, at 11 et seq.
CCIG Award, 1989, [1993] ASA. Bull. 216 et seq.
Decision on Jurisdiction of 24 December 1996 and Award of 29 April 1999 in case no ARB/94/2, YCA 2000, 221 et seq.
ICC Award No. 12290, Collection of ICC Arbitral Awards 2008-2011, at Page 831 et seq.
ICC Award No. 3344, Clunet 1982, at 978 et seq.
ICC Award No. 6653, Clunet 1993, at 1040 et seq.
ICC Award No. 7331, Clunet 1995, at 1001 et seq.
ICC Award No. 8874, ICC Bull. 10/No. 2 (1999), at 60 et seq.
ICC Award No.1434, Clunet 1976, at 978 et seq.
ICSID Award, Asian Agricultural Products Ltd. v. The Republic of Sri Lanka, YCA 1991, at 106 et seq.
Iran-US Claims Tribunal, Abrahim Rahman Golshani v. The Government of The Islamic Republic of Iran, YCA 1994, at 421 et seq.
Arbitration Rules
Arbitration Rules 2004, China Maritime Arbitration Commission, YCA 2005, 219 et seq
ICDR International Dispute Resolution Procedures (including Mediation and Arbitration Rules)
UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules 1976
UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules 2010 (revised)
Court Decisions
Reports of Judgements, Advisory Opinions and Orders, International Court of Justice, Case of certain Norwegian Loans, (France v. Norway) Judgement of July 6th, 1957
Anonymous Writer, Colford's Collection, in the "Little Red Book of Bristol" (late 13th century)
Arnaldez, Jean-Jacques, note to ICC Award No. 6653, Clunet 1993, at 1047 et seq.
Baker, Stewart/ Davis, Mark D., Arbitral Proceedings under the UNICTRAL Rules - The Experience of the Iran - United States Claims Tribunal, 23 G.Wash.J.Int’I L.&Ec. 1989, at 267 et seq.
Black, Henry Campell, Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed., St. Paul 1990
Cheng, Bin, General Principles Of Law as Applied by International Courts and Tribunals, reprinted, Cambridge 1987
Craig, W. Laurence/ Park, William W./ Paulsson, Jan, International Chamber of Commerce Arbitration, 3rd ed., Dobbs Ferry 2000
Derains, Yves, note to ICC Award No. 1434, Clunet 1976, at 982 et seq.
Domingo, Ortega, Rodriguez-Antolin, Zambrana, Principios de Derecho Global, Navarra, 2006
Ferrari, Franco, Das Verhältnis zwischen den Unidroit-Grundsätzen und den allgemeinen Grundsätzen internationaler Einheitsprivatrechtskonventionen, JZ 1998, at 9 et seq.
Ferrari, Franco, The CISG's Interpretative Goals, Its Interpretative Method and Its General Principles in Case Law (Part II), IHR 5/2013, at 181 et seq.
Fouchard, Philippe, L'Arbitrage Commercial International, Paris 1965
Gaillard, Emmanuel, note to ICC Award No. 3344, Clunet 1982, at 983 et seq.
Highet, Keith, Evidence, The Chamber, and the ELSI Case, in: Lillich, Richard B., Fact-Finding Before International Tribunals [eleventh Sokol Colloquium], Ardsley-on-Hudson, New York 1992, at 33
Holtzmann, Howard M., Fact-Finding by the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal in: Lillich, Richard B., Fact-Finding Before International Tribunals [eleventh Sokol Colloquium], Ardsley-on-Hudson, New York 1992, at 101
Kazazi, Mojtaba, Burden of Proof and Related Issues: a Study on Evidence Before International Tribunals, The Hague / London / Boston 1996
Kersley, R.H., M.A., LL.M./ Broom, Herbert, LL.D., A Selection of Legal Maxims, 10th ed. London, 1939
Magnus, Ulrich, Die allgemeinen Grundsätze im UN-Kaufrecht, 59 RabelsZ 1995, at 469 et seq.
Müller, Tobias Malte, Ausgesuchte Fragen der Beweislastverteilung im UN-Kaufrecht im Lichte der aktuellen Rechtsprechung, München 2005
O'Malley, Nathan D., Rules of Evidence in International Arbitration, An Annotated Guide, London 2012
Ortscheidt, Jérôme, La réparation du dommage dans l'arbitrage commercial international, Paris 2001.
Ripert, Georges, Les Règles du Droit Civil Applicables aux Rapports Internationaux (Contribution à l'Etude des Principes Généraux du Droit Visés au Statut de la Cour Permanente de Justice Internationale), 44 Rec.Cours 1933-II, at 569 et seq.
Sandifer, Durward V., Evidence before international Tribunals, Charlottesville1975
Selby, Jamison, Fact-Finding by the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal: The View from the Trenches, in: Lillich, Richard B., Fact-Finding Before International Tribunals [eleventh Sokol Colloquium], Ardsley-on-Hudson, New York 1992, at 135
Simpson, J. L. / Fox, Hazel, International Arbitration - Law and Practice, London 1959
Voigtel, Unter welchen Umständen ist die Existenz eines Contocurrent-Verhältnisses anzunehmen?, 3 Archiv für Theorie und Praxis des Allgemeinen deutschen Handelsrechts 1864, at 203 et seq.
Zeller, Damages under the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, 2nd ed. 2009
Digest XXII, 3, 2 (Paulus)
National Legislation
Civil Code Québec
Ethiopian Civil Code
Swiss Civil Code, Schweizer Zivilgesetzbuch, Art. 1-10,  2008
United Arab Emirates Civil Code 1987
Principles / Restatements
Principles of Law and Equity - Grounds and Rudiments of Law and Equity, Alphabetically Digested (London 1751)
Contract Clauses
1. Proof of Payment
Trust Agreement

The Mortgagor will exhibit to the Mortgagee the original receipts (or copies thereof) or other proof reasonably satisfactory to the Mortgagee of the payment of all real estate taxes within 30 days after the same are required to be paid by the Mortgagor in compliance with subsection X hereof. Concurrently with the delivery of the financial statements and other information required by Section X of the Indenture, Mortgagor shall for all other Impositions deliver to the Mortgagee quarterly an Officer's Certificate that, to the best knowledge of such officer, all such Impositions have been paid and that, to the best of such officer's knowledge, the aggregate of all unpaid amounts on such Impositions do not exceed $25,000, except for Impositions which are being contested in accordance with the provisions of the first paragraph of subsection X. The Mortgagor shall immediately notify the Mortgagee of the receipt by the Mortgagor of any notice that any Imposition has not been paid when due and shall, at the same time, furnish to the Mortgagee a copy of such notice of non-payment.

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