Trans-Lex Principles, Please cite as: ""

Trans-Lex Principles

The TransLex-Principles are a systematic online-collection of principles and rules of transnational commercial law. They are being used by counsel and arbitrators in international arbitrations as well as contract drafters, academics and participants of moot court competitions in international arbitration across the globe. Read more


Jump to: Please select a chapter!

Chapter I: General ProvisionsSection 1: Good Faith and Fair DealingSection 2: Reasonableness; Trade Usages; Professional CompetenceSection 3: VariaChapter II: AgencyChapter III: Set-Off; AssignmentChapter IV: ContractSection 1: General PrinciplesSection 2: Conclusion of ContractSection 3: Contracting under Standard TermsSection 4: Form Requirements; LanguageSection 5: InterpretationSection 6: Contractual ObligationsSection 7: Invalidity of ContractSection 8: Precontractual LiabilityChapter V: PerformanceSection 1: General PrinciplesSection 2: Payment of Money DebtsChapter VI: Non-PerformanceChapter VII: DamagesChapter VIII: HardshipChapter IX: Unjust Enrichment/RestitutionChapter X: CorporationsChapter XI: ExpropriationChapter XII: Proof, Means of EvidenceChapter XIII: International ArbitrationSection 1: Arbitration AgreementSection 2: Arbitral TribunalSection 3: Arbitral ProcedureSection 4: Award; Termination of ProceedingsSection 5: ConfidentialityChapter XIV: Private International Law

Chapter I: General Provisions

Section 1: Good Faith and Fair Dealing

I.1.1 - Good faith and fair dealing in international trade193I.1.2 - Prohibition of inconsistent behaviour54I.1.3 - Forfeiture of rights24I.1.4 - Abuse of rights13I.1.5 - No advantage in case of own unlawful acts10I.1.6 - No damage claim in case of consent11 

Section 2: Reasonableness; Trade Usages; Professional Competence

I.2.1 - Standard of reasonableness149I.2.2 - Trade usages32I.2.3 - Presumption of professional competence and equality of parties17 

Section 3: Varia

I.3.1 - Limitation of transfer of rights12I.3.2 - Lex specialis-principle9 

Chapter II: Agency

II.1 - Prerequisites and effects of agency87II.2 - Agent acting on behalf of group of companies13II.3 - Agent acting without or outside his authority12II.4 - Agency by estoppel / Apparent authority26II.5 - Attribution of knowledge to principal10II.6 - Performance by agent24II.7 - General agent15 

Chapter III: Set-Off; Assignment

III.1 - Set-off69III.2 - Assignment of claim137 

Chapter IV: Contract

Section 1: General Principles

IV.1.1 - Freedom of contract16IV.1.2 - Sanctity of contracts74 

Section 2: Conclusion of Contract

IV.2.1 - Contractual consent66IV.2.2 - Silence by offeree34IV.2.3 - No repudiation of contractual consent by state party19IV.2.4 - Lapse of an offer14IV.2.5 - Holidays and non-business days48IV.2.6 - Modified Acceptance9IV.2.7 - Writings in confirmation5 

Section 3: Contracting under Standard Terms

IV.3.1 - Scope of application; Definition10IV.3.2 - Inclusion of standard terms1IV.3.3 - No surprising standard terms4IV.3.4 - Conflicting terms; battle of forms4IV.3.5 - Unfair standard terms3 

Section 4: Form Requirements; Language

IV.4.1 - Freedom of Form55IV.4.2 - Language14 

Section 5: Interpretation

IV.5.1 - Intentions of the parties137IV.5.2 - Context-oriented interpretation27IV.5.3 - Interpretation in favour of effectiveness of contract62IV.5.4 - Interpretation against the party that supplied the term68IV.5.5 - Falsa demonstratio rule5IV.5.6 - Rights and duties of the parties under "FOB" and "CIF"16IV.5.7 - Merger Clauses95 

Section 6: Contractual Obligations

IV.6.1 - Express and implied obligations56IV.6.2 - Subsequent fixing of contract price79IV.6.3 - Fixing of price by third party9IV.6.4 - No contract to detriment of third party25IV.6.5 - Best efforts undertakings93IV.6.6 - Time is of the essence21IV.6.7 - Duty to renegotiate25IV.6.8 - (Re-) Negotiation Agreement / Clause (Pactum de negotiando)11IV.6.9 - Duty to notify / to cooperate164IV.6.10 - Conditions67IV.6.11 - Plurality of debtors6IV.6.12 - Plurality of Creditors2IV.6.13 - Duty of confidentiality100 

Section 7: Invalidity of Contract

IV.7.1 - Invalidity of contract that violates good morals (boni mores)34IV.7.2 - Invalidity of contract due to bribery49IV.7.3 - Right to avoid the contract for mistake in fact or law28IV.7.4 - Right to avoid the contract for fraudulent misrepresentation0IV.7.5 – Severability of Contract Provisions12 

Section 8: Precontractual Liability

IV.8.1 - Principle of pre-contractual liability54 

Chapter V: Performance

Section 1: General Principles

V.1.1 - Place of performance9V.1.2 - Time of performance62V.1.3 - Early performance4V.1.4 - Principle of simultaneous performance; right to withhold performance51V.1.5 - Costs of performance47 

Section 2: Payment of Money Debts

V.2.1 - Payment in currency of place of payment21V.2.2 - Conversion of money debts11V.2.3 - Nominal-value principle15V.2.4 - Distribution of currency transfer risk6V.2.5 - Payment of contract price through documentary credit16 

Chapter VI: Non-Performance

VI.1 - Termination of contract in case of fundamental non-performance176VI.2 - Deadline for notice of defects26VI.3 - Force majeure210VI.4 - Promise to pay in case of non-performance62VI.5 - Anticipatory breach8 

Chapter VII: Damages

VII.1 - Damages in case of non-performance80VII.2 - Principle of foreseeability of loss57VII.3.1 - Limits to claims for damages37VII.3.2 - Calculation of damages30VII.3.3 - Future damages/Lost profits6VII.4 - Duty to mitigate76VII.5 - Liability for damages for legal opinions9VII.6 - Duty to pay interest118VII.7 - Right to charge compound interest40 

Chapter VIII: Hardship

VIII.1 - Definition91VIII.2 - Legal consequences8 

Chapter IX: Unjust Enrichment/Restitution

IX.1 - Basic rule65IX.2 - Circumstances in which an enrichment is unjustified0IX.3 - Enrichment1IX.4 - Disadvantage0IX.5 - Disenrichment1IX.6 - No restitution in case of knowledge of illegality of performance11IX.7 - Relation to other remedies0 

Chapter X: Corporations

X.1 - Foreign corporate entities39X.2 - Piercing the corporate veil18X.3 - Liability of corporate founders6 

Chapter XI: Expropriation

XI.1 - Compensation for expropriation54 

Chapter XII: Proof, Means of Evidence

XII.1 - Distribution of burden of proof49XII.2 - Proof of written contract6XII.3 - Circumstantial evidence9XII.4 - Prima facie evidence12XII.5 - Settlement Privilege35XII.6 - Attorney-Client Privilege27XII.7 - Most Favorable Privilege Rule7 

Chapter XIII: International Arbitration

Section 1: Arbitration Agreement

XIII.1.1 - Arbitration Agreement111XIII.1.2 - Interpretation of Arbitration agreements3XIII.1.2 - Arbitration agreement and substantive claim before court26XIII.1.3 - Arbitration agreement and interim measures by court12 

Section 2: Arbitral Tribunal

XIII.2.1 - Number of arbitrators30XIII.2.2 - Arbitrator‘s duty to disclose15XIII.2.3 - Grounds for challenge of an arbitrator23XIII.2.4 - Principle of separability of the arbitration clause38XIII.2.5 - Power of arbitral tribunal to order interim measures15XIII.2.6 - Decision making by panel of arbitrators10XIII.2.7 - Immunity of arbitrator21 

Section 3: Arbitral Procedure

XIII.3.1 - Arbitral due process14XIII.3.2 - Determination of rules of procedure26XIII.3.3 - Seat of arbitration19XIII.3.4 - Language of the arbitration17XIII.3.5 - Early legal guidance by the tribunal3XIII.3.6 - Hearings and written proceedings12XIII.3.7 - No suspension in case of bankruptcy of a party10XIII.3.8 - Default of a party9XIII.3.9 - Waiver of right to object13 

Section 4: Award; Termination of Proceedings

XIII.4.1 - Rules applicable to merits; decision ex aequo et bono13XIII.4.2 - Form and contents of award29XIII.4.3 - Settlement11XIII.4.4 - Termination of proceedings21 

Section 5: Confidentiality

XIII.5.1 - Confidentiality20 

Chapter XIV: Private International Law

XIV.1 - Law applicable to international arbitration agreements13XIV.2 - Law applicable to international contract164XIV.3 - Rule of validation/Lex validitatis9 
Contact - Team - Trustees - Disclaimer / Legal information / Privacy - Twitter - Facebook
A project of CENTRAL, University of Cologne. Co-sponsored by Klemens Pleyer Foundation