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No. XII.3 - Circumstantial evidence

Principal facts may be proven by evidence of facts and/or circumstances from which the existence of those principal facts usually and reasonably follow according to the general experience of life.

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In application of this Principle, the approval of invoices over the amount claimed may serve as circumstantial evidence for the existence of the claim.

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Arbitral AwardsCourt DecisionsDoctrineNational Legislation

Arbitral Awards

ICSID Award, Asian Agricultural Products Ltd. v. The Republic of Sri Lanka, YCA 1991, at 106 et seq.Iran-US Claims Tribunal, Abrahim Rahman Golshani v. The Government of The Islamic Republic of Iran, YCA 1994, at 421 et seq.Iran-US Claims Tribunal, Time, Inc. v. Iran, 7 IRAN-U.S. C.T.R. at 8 et seq. 

Court Decisions

Melvin C. Foster v Union Starch & Refining Co, 137 N.E.2d 499People v. Yokum, 145 Cal.App.2d 245Twin City Fire Ins. Co. v. Lonas, 75 S.W.2d 348 


Cheng, Bin, General Principles Of Law as Applied by International Courts and Tribunals, reprinted, Cambridge 1987Sandifer, Durward V., Evidence before international Tribunals, Charlottesville1975 

National Legislation

United Arab Emirates Civil Code 1987 

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