No. IV.2.2 - Silence by offeree

(a) Silence by the offeree does not in and of itself amount to acceptance.

(b) Silence by the offeree amounts to acceptance if the offeree begins with the performance of his contractual obligations or is required to reject the offer due to a long-standing business relationship with the offeror or is subject to a practice which the parties have established between themselves or a trade usage requiring rejection of the offer ("qui tacet consentire videtur").

1 The Principle confirms that, unless the parties agree otherwise or have established a usage or course of dealing between them, mere silence of the party that has received an offer to conclude a contract does not amount to acceptance because that silence does not constitute a binding declaration of will.

2 This situation must be distinguished from scenarios in which, though the party receiving an offer does not issue a statement, an implied acceptance of the offer can be inferred from its conduct, e.g. because that party begins to perform the contract. In such a case, acceptance becomes effective once the act indicating the party's implied acceptance is performed, even though the offeror may not have taken note of this act at this point in time.

Please cite as: "Commentary to Trans-Lex Principle ,"
Arbitral Awards
ICC Award No. 3243, Clunet 1982, at 968 et seq.
ICC Award No. 3344, Clunet 1982, at 978 et seq.
ICC Award No. 543, Internationale Wirtschaft, December 1934, at 7 et seq.
ICC Award No. 5904, Clunet 1989, at 1107 et seq.
ICC Award No. 6309, Clunet 1991, at 1046 et seq.
ICC Award No. 8365, Clunet 1997, at 1078 et seq.
Insurer v. Shipowner, German Maritime Arbitration Association Award of 30 November 2000, YCA 2005, 13
Bianca, C. Massimo/ Bonell, Michael Joachim, Commentary On The International Sales Law, Art. 18, Milan 1987
Black, Henry Campell, Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed., St. Paul 1990
Blessing, Marc, Das neue internationale Schiedsgerichtsrecht der Schweiz - Ein Fortschritt oder ein Rückschritt?, in: Böckstiegel (ed.), Die internationale Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit in der Schweiz (II), Cologne, Berlin, Bonn, Munich 1989, at 13 et seq.
Crook, John R., Applicable Law In International Commercial Arbitration: The Iran-US-Claims Tribunal Experience, 83 AJIL 1989, at 278 et seq.
Derains, Yves, note to ICC Award No. 3243, Clunet 1982, at 970 et seq.
Derains, Yves, note to ICC Award No. 5904, Clunet 1989, at 1111 et seq.
Domingo, Ortega, Rodriguez-Antolin, Zambrana, Principios de Derecho Global, Navarra, 2006
Fouchard, Philippe, L'Arbitrage Commercial International, Paris 1965
Gaillard, Emmanuel, note to ICC Award No. 3344, Clunet 1982, at 983 et seq.
Knütel, Rolf, Rechtseinheit in Europa und römisches Recht, 3 ZEuP 1994, at 244 et seq.
Krampe, Christoph, Qui tacet, consentire videtur - Über die Herkunft einer Rechtsregel, in: Festschrift Mikat, Berlin 1989, at 367 et seq.
Langen, Eugen, Transnationales Recht, Heidelberg 1981.
Lorenz, Werner, Rechtsvergleichung als Methode zur Konkretisierung der allgemeinen Grundsätze des Rechts, JZ 1962, at 269 et seq.
Marrella, Fabrizio, La nuova lex mercatoria, Principi Unidroit ed usi di contratti des comercio internazionale, CEDAM, Tratto di dritto commerciale e di dritto publico dell‘economia, Volume 30, Padova 2003
Mustill, Michael, The New Lex Mercatoria: The First Twenty-five Years, Arb.Int'l 1988, at 86 et seq.
Paulsson, Jan, La Lex Mercatoria dans l‘Arbitrage C.C.I, Rev.d.Arb. 1990. at 55 et seq.
Schlechtriem, Peter (ed.), English Commentary on the UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG), Comment on Art. 18 by Peter Schlechtriem, Oxford 1998
Wühler, Norbert, Application of General Principles of Law, in van den Berg (ed.), Planning efficient Arbitration Proceedings - The Law Applicable in International Arbitration, p. 553 et seq.
International Legislation
United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)
National Legislation
Civil Code Québec
Contract Law of the People's Republic of China
Danish Contracts Act
Ethiopian Civil Code
Finnish Contracts Act
United Arab Emirates Civil Code 1987
Principles / Restatements
Principles of European Contract Law - PECL
Principles of Law and Equity - Grounds and Rudiments of Law and Equity, Alphabetically Digested (London 1751)
UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts
Contract Clauses
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