No. IV.1.1 - Freedom of contract

The parties are free to enter into contracts and to determine their contents (principle of party autonomy).

1 Together with the Principle of sanctity of contracts this Principle of party autonomy constitutes a core pillar of transnational contract law. The parties' freedom relates to both their decision whether to enter into a contract and how the contents of that contract should be. It is this later aspect of party autonomy which allows the parties to create, always within the boundaries of boni mores and the Principle on unfair standard terms, their own contractual framework, tailor made to the specificities of their commercial transaction.

2 There may also be mandatory provisions of domestic law, which must be applied irrespective of which law governs the contract ("lois d'application immédiate", "lois de police", "Eingriffsnormen") and which may set limits to the party's freedom to determine the contents of their contractual relationship.

3 The Principle of good faith is not subject to the Principle of freedom of contract, i.e. the parties may not contractually exclude or limit it. Such an agreement would itself be void because it is against boni mores.

Please cite as: "Commentary to Trans-Lex Principle ,"
Bianca, C. Massimo/ Bonell, Michael Joachim, Commentary On The International Sales Law, Art. 7, Milan 1987
Domingo, Ortega, Rodriguez-Antolin, Zambrana, Principios de Derecho Global, Navarra, 2006
Ferrari, Franco, Das Verhältnis zwischen den Unidroit-Grundsätzen und den allgemeinen Grundsätzen internationaler Einheitsprivatrechtskonventionen, JZ 1998, at 9 et seq.
Herber, Rolf/ Czerwenka, Beate, Internationales Kaufrecht, Munich 1991
Horn, Norbert, Das Recht der internationalen Anleihen, Frankfurt a.M. 1972
Lando, Ole, CISG and Its Followers: A Proposal to Adopt Some International Principles of Contract Law, in: American Journal of Comparative Law 53, Berkley 2005.
Schmitthoff, Clive, Das neue Recht des Welthandels, 28 RabelsZ 1964, at 47 et seq.
International Legislation
UNIDROIT Convention on International Factoring (Ottawa, 28 May 1988).
UNIDROIT Convention on International Financial Leasing (Ottawa, 20 May 1988).
United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)
Model Laws
Code Européen des Contrats - European Contract Code
National Legislation
Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch - German Civil Code
Contract Law of the People's Republic of China
Russian Civil Code
Principles / Restatements
Principles of European Contract Law - PECL
UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts
Contract Clauses
There are currently no contract clauses.
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