xr Trans-Lex.org Law Research Trans-Lex.org Law Research - Docid: 914000 -

No. II.4 - Agency by estoppel / Apparent authority

Where the conduct of the principal causes the third party reasonably and in good faith to believe that the agent has authority to act on behalf of the principal and the agent is acting within the scope of that authority, the principal may not invoke against the third party the lack of authority of the agent ("agency by estoppel", "Anscheinsvollmacht").

This Principle results from the general Principle of good faith and the prohibition of inconsistent behaviour. The Principle requires reasonable reliance by the third party on the conduct of the principal, e.g. because the latter has made certain statements or has behaved in a way that causes a reasonable person in the same situation as the third party to believe that the agent has authority to act on behalf of the principal and that he is acting within the scope of that authority. 

Please cite as: "Commentary to Trans-Lex Principle , http://www.trans-lex.org/914000"
Arbitral Awards
Hamburger Freundschaftliche Arbitrage, Ad Hoc-Award of March 12, 1984, YCA 1991, at 11, 12 et seq.
 Cooke, Elizabeth, The Modern Law of Estoppel, 2000
Berger, Klaus Peter, The Creeping Codification of the Lex Mercatoria, The Hague, London, Boston 1999
Berger, Klaus Peter, The Creeping Codification of the New Lex Mercatoriam 2nd. ed. 2010
Dalhuisen, Jan H. - Legal Orders and Their Manifestation: The Operation of the International Commercial and Financial Legal Order and Its Lex Mercatoria, (2006) 24 Berk J Intl L  129.
Derains, Yves, note to ICC Award No. 5065, Clunet 1987, at 1043 et seq.
Esser, Josef, Grundsatz und Norm in der richterlichen Fortbildung des Privatrechts, 4th ed., Tübingen 1990
Fouchard Gaillard Goldman on International Commercial Arbitration (edited by Emmanuel Gaillard and John Savage) The Hague 1999
Hanisch, Hans, Das Genfer Abkommen über die Stellvertretung bei internationalen Wareneinkäufen von 1983, in: Festschrift Giger, Bern 1989, at 251 et seq.
Hartkamp, Arthur, Judicial Discretion Under the New Civil Code of the Netherlands, 40 Am.J.Comp.L. 1992, at 551 et seq.
Ingber, Léon / de Saedeleer, Isabelle / Renard, Alain, Chronique de droit civil belge. La réforme du droit de la filiation (loi du 31 mars 1987), in: RTD Civ. 1991 at page 829 et seq.
Kropholler, Jan, Die Anscheinshaftung im internationalen Recht der Stellvertretung,, 19 NJW 1965, at 1641 et seq.
Montrose, J. L., The Apparent Authority of an Agent of a Company, 50 L.Q.Rev. 1934, at 224 et seq.
Sandrock, Otto, Arbitration Agreements and Groups of Companies, in: Festschrift Pierre Lalive, Basel, Frankfurt a.M. 1993, at 625 et seq.
Schmitthoff, Clive, Agency in International Trade, A Study in Comparative Law, 117 Rec.Cours 1970-I, at 115 et seq.
Staehelin, Estoppel und Vertrauensprinzip, in: Festschrift Simonius, Basel 1955, at 381 et seq.
Tourneau, Philippe le, Mandat, Rép. civ. Dalloz juin 2011 at page 1 et seq.
Wühler, Norbert, Application of General Principles of Law, in van den Berg (ed.), Planning efficient Arbitration Proceedings - The Law Applicable in International Arbitration, p. 553 et seq.
International Legislation
Convention on Agency in the International Sale of Goods (Geneva, 17 February 1983).
Model Laws
A Contract Code: Drawn up on Behalf of the English Law Commission
Code Européen des Contrats - European Contract Code
National Legislation
Civil Code Québec
Contract Law of the People's Republic of China
Finnish Contracts Act
Nieuw Burgerlijk Wetboek - New Netherlands Civil Code ( Dutch Civil Code )
Principles / Restatements
Principles of European Contract Law - PECL
UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts
Contract Clauses
There are currently no contract clauses.
A project of CENTRAL, University of Cologne.