xWhart. Angl. Sacr. i. 772. Nicols. Scot. Hist. libr. ch. 1. prope finem.
yBrownl. 55. 1 Freem. 410.
z1 Roll. Abr. 242. 1 Lord Raym. 115.
aAppend. No. III. § 6.
9A motion to set aside an award under a submission by an obligation, must be made before the last day of the next term after the award is made. 9 & 10 W. III. c. 15. s. 2. 2 T. R. 781. But this does not extend to an award made in pursuance of an order of nisi prius. Str. 301. If a motion be made to set aside an award under the statute, because it has been procured by corruption or undue means, or for any matter extrinsic the award, it must be made before the end of the next term; but an application for an attachment for not performing an award, may be resisted at any time for defects appearing on the face of the award itself; for such an award, after that time, might be pleaded in bar to any action brought upon it. Pedley v. Goddard, 7 T. R. 78. But it cannot be set aside for such defects after the end of the next term. 1 East. 276.
Submissions to arbitration were entered into by a rule of the court at the common law when a cause was depending, and the statute of king William was intended to give the same efficacy to awards where no suit or action was instituted. 2 Burr. 701. A verbal agreement to abide by an award cannot be made a rule of court. 7 T. R. 1.
A submission to an award cannot be made a rule of court, where an indictment as for an assault has been preferred for the subject referred. 8 T. R. 520. An agreement to enlarge the time of making an award must contain a consent to make it a rule of court, otherwise no attachment will be granted for non-performance. 8 T. R. 57
Where a cause is referred by an order of nisi prius, and it is agreed that the costs shall abide the event of the award, this signifies the legal event; and if the arbitrator awards such damages for a tresspass or an assault as would not, if given in a verdict, carry costs to the plaintiff, he cannot recover them under this reference, the award in such instances being not equivalent to the certificate of a judge. 3 T. R. 138. But arbitrators may award costs at their discretion, unless there is an express provision in the rule, that the costs shall abide the event of the award. 2 T. R. 644. If it is awarded that one of the parties shall pay the costs of the action, the costs of the arbitration are not included. H. Bl. Rep. 223.
When arbitrators have the power of electing an umpire, they may chuse him and call in his assistance as soon as they begin to take the subject into consideration. And this is the more convenient practice, as it secures a decision upon a single investigation of the controversy. 2 T. R. 644. The agreement to a reference must be expressed with great caution and accuracy, for if it is agreed to refer all matters in difference between the parties in the cause; the arbitrators are not confined to the subject of the cause alone, as they are when it is agreed to refer all matters in difference in the cause between the parties. 2 T. R. 645. Yet after an award under a reference in the first case, either party may maintain an action for a right or demand subsisting at the time of the reference, but not disputed before, or referred to, the arbitrators. 4 T. R. 146.
The court will not grant an attachment against a member of parliament for non-payment of money according to an award. 7 T. R. 448. If an arbitrator award that an administrator, who has submitted to the award, shall pay a certain sum, he is precluded afterwards from objecting that he has no assets to satisfy the demand. 7 T. R. 453.
Courts of equity exercise a jurisdiction in setting aside awards, particularly if a discovery or an account be prayed: but an arbitrator cannot be made a party, if it is agreed by the submission bond that no bill in equity shall be filed against him. 2 Atk. 395. Where it was one of the articles of co-partnership that all differences should be referred to arbitration, it was decided, that a court of equity could entertain no jurisdiction of the subject until the parties had referred their disputes to the consideration of arbitrators. 2 Bro. 336. But it has since been determined that an agreement or covenant to refer all differences to arbitration, and not to file any bill in equity, or bring any action at law, cannot take away the jurisdiction of any court in Westminster Hall. But an action might be brought for the breach of this covenant. 2 Ves. jun. 129. And where a submission to an award is made a rule of court, and it is part of the rule that the parties shall file no bill in equity, it is in the discretion of the court of law, whether they will enforce that part of the rule by attachment or not. Ib. 451.
The same has also been decided by the court of King’s Bench. 8 T. R. 139.
When a verdict is taken pro forma at the trial for a certain sum, the plaintiff is entitled to enter up judgment for the amount of the sum awarded, without applying to the court for leave. 1 East. 401. 3 B. & P. 244.
An award to pay money, in consequence of such an illegal transaction as would have been a bar to its recovery in an action, will be so far set aside. 3 B. & P. 371.
An award will be set aside if it is contrary to law. 3 East. 18. Unless it was clearly agreed by the parties, that the judgment of the arbitrator upon the question of law should be conclusive. 9 Ves. jun. 364.
Arbitrations being unattended by the inevitable delay and expence of public litigation, are of such infinite importance to the community, that it is rather surprizing that the legislature has not yet given to arbitrators a power of compelling the attendance of witnesses, or of administering an oath to them. For until they possess this authority, like courts of justice, however wise and righteous their awards may be, it cannot be expected that they can give the same satisfaction to those who are interested in the event of the controversy.