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Osman, Filali, Les Principes Généraux de la Lex Mercatoria, Paris 1992

Title
Osman, Filali, Les Principes Généraux de la Lex Mercatoria, Paris 1992
Content
19 et seq.

Translation Or, en l'absence de telles règles supplétives de la volonté des parties, les arbitres du commerce international ont été amené, progressivement, à puiser dans le principe supérieur de bonne foi le substrat leur permettant de mesurer le comportement des contractants et d'énoncer des règles de conduite de plus en plus cohérentes et uniformes.

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34

Translation Comme le souligne Lord Justice MUSTILL, le principe pacta sunt servanda doit être analysé moins comme une règle de la lex mercatoria que comme un principe fondamental, de la totalité du système mercatique132.

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75

Translation En conclusion nous estimons, qu'en l'absence d'un accord de principe, le droit anational, à l'instar des droits nationaux, conclura au fondement délictuel de l'action en responsabilités en cas de violation de l'obligation de négocier de bonne foi.

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148

Translation Il s'agit donc dune obligation d'assistance mutuelle des contractants dans l'exécution du contrat. Ce faisant, parallèlement à l'obligation de renseignement assumée par le débiteur, le créancier n'a pas un droit acquis à la passivité. Il est tenu de se renseigner.

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162

Translation En conclusion, la définition légale anationale de la force majeure exclut, donc, une suspension ou réadaptation du contrat, dans l'hypothèse où son exécution, sans être absolument impossible, devient plus onéreuse pour le débiteur. Seules des circonstances, définies expressément par le contrat comme étant constitutives de force majeure, et proches d'un bouleversement de son économie, sont susceptibles de conclure à sa réadaptation ou, en cas d'échec, à sa résiliation.

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179

Translation Le droit anational envisage les dommages-intérêts comme un moyen permettant de placer le créancier dans la situation économique que lui eût procuré l'exécution du contrat.

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186

Translation C'est dire que l'obligation du créancier de minimiser son dommage, retient l'arbitre lorsqu'il est amené à statuer sur la réparation, du fait de la traduction de ses conséquences sur l'évaluation du préjudice. Mais en tout état de cause il s'agit bien d'un principe général de la lex mercatoria.

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Osman, Filali, The general principles of the Lex Mercatoria, Paris 1992

19 et seq.

Translation But in absence of dispositive law, agreed upon by the parties, the arbitrators of the international commerce have been brought progressively to extract from the superior principle of good faith the substrate, allowing them to measure the behaviour of the co-contractors and to formulate more and more coherent and uniform rules of conduct.

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34

Translation As Lord Justice MUSTILL emphasises, the principle pacta sunt servanta has to be analysed less as a principle of the lex mercatoria, but rather as a fundamental principle of the entire mercantile system.132

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75

Translation Concluding, we advance the view that, in absence of a fundamental agreement, the a-national law, like the national laws, will lead to the tortious foundation of the action for damages in case of the breach of the obligation to negotiate in good faith.

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148

Translation Therefore it is about mutual assistance of the co-contractors in the execution of the contract. Doing so, parallel to the obligation to give information undertaken by the debtor, the creditor has no acquired right to passivity. He is obliged to inform himself.

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162

Translation In conclusion, the a-national legal definition of force majeure excludes a suspension or a readaptation of the contract in case that its execution, without being completely impossible, becomes more expensive for the debtor. Only circumstances, which are expressly defined by the contract as being constitutive for the force majeure and able to upset its economic base, are apt to lead to its readaptation or, in case of failure, to its rescission.

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179

Translation The a-national law regards the compensation for damages as a means allowing to put the creditor in the economic situation, in which he would be in case of the execution of the contract.

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186

Translation That is to say that the obligation of the creditor to minimise his damage has to be taken into consideration by the arbitrator, when deciding upon the compensation, because this obligation implicates consequences for the estimation of the damage. But anyway it is about a general principle of the lex mercatoria.

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132«The emphasis given to this maxim in the literature suggest that is regarded, not so much as one of the rules of the lex mercatoria , but as the fundamental principle of the entire system» : The New Lex Mercatoria : The First Twenty-fixe years., op. cit., p. 177.
132"The emphasis given to this maxim in the literature suggest that is regarded, not so much as on of the rules of the lex mercatoria, but as the fundamental principle of the entire system": The New Lex Mercatoria: The First Twenty-Five years., op. cit., p. 177.

Referring Principles
Trans-Lex Principle: I.1.1 - Good faith and fair dealing in international trade
Trans-Lex Principle: IV.1.2 - Sanctity of contracts
Trans-Lex Principle: IV.6.9 - Duty to notify / to cooperate
Trans-Lex Principle: IV.8.1 - Principle of pre-contractual liability
Trans-Lex Principle: VI.3 - Force majeure
Trans-Lex Principle: VII.1 - Damages in case of non-performance
Trans-Lex Principle: VII.4 - Duty to mitigate
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