xr Trans-Lex.org Law Research Trans-Lex.org Law Research - Docid: 906000 -
Principle

No. I.1.3 - Forfeiture of rights

A party that has not raised voluntarily a right to which it is entitled under the law for a certain period of time is precluded from asserting that right against another party that has justifiably relied on such conduct and will suffer injury if the former party is allowed to repudiate its conduct.

Commentary
The Principle is derived from the Principle of good faith and the prohibition of inconsistent behaviour. A party may not claim the invalidity of a contract after it has performed its contractual obligations over a period of several months and has impliedly acknowledged the legal validity of the contract, provided the other party had reasons to believe in the fact that the first party would not object to the validity of the contract. The question whether the second party has such reasons must be decided against the background of the standard of reasonableness.


Please cite as: "Commentary to Trans-Lex Principle , http://www.trans-lex.org/906000"
References
Court Decisions
Cour de cassation Belgique, C970010N, 12th February 1999
Cour de cassation de Belgique, 7437, 5th June 1992
Cour de cassation de Belgique, 7992, 1st October 1993
Cour de cassation de Belgique, 8685, 17th May 1990
Cour de cassation de Belgique, 9050, 20th February 1992
Cour de cassation de Belgique, C070214N, 17th Ocotber 2008
Cour de cassation de Belgique, C960120N, 6th November 1997
Doctrine
Adam-Ferreira, Béatrice, La renonciation est-elle compatible avec la protection des droits fondamentaux?, in: RFDA 2007 at page 744 et seq.
Blessing, Marc, Das neue internationale Schiedsgerichtsrecht der Schweiz - Ein Fortschritt oder ein Rückschritt?, in: Böckstiegel (ed.), Die internationale Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit in der Schweiz (II), Cologne, Berlin, Bonn, Munich 1989, at 13 et seq.
Domingo, Ortega, Rodriguez-Antolin, Zambrana, Principios de Derecho Global, Navarra, 2006
Ehricke, Ulrich, Zur Einführung: Grundstrukturen und Probleme der lex mercatoria, 30 JuS 1990, at 967 et seq.
Herber, Rolf/ Czerwenka, Beate, Internationales Kaufrecht, Munich 1991
Ingber, Léon / de Saedeleer, Isabelle / Renard, Alain, Chronique de droit civil belge, in: RTd Civ. 1992 at page 830 et seq.
Ingber, Léon / de Saedeleer, Isabelle / Renard, Alain, Chronique de droit civil belge. La réforme du droit de la filiation (loi du 31 mars 1987), in: RTD Civ. 1991 at page 829 et seq.
Magnus, Ulrich, Die allgemeinen Grundsätze im UN-Kaufrecht, 59 RabelsZ 1995, at 469 et seq.
Schlechtriem, Peter (ed.), English Commentary on the UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG), Comment on Art. 7 by Rolf Herber, Oxford 1998
Will, Michael R., Verwirkung im Internationalen Privatrecht, 42 RabelsZ 1978, at 211 et seq.
Zenati, Frederic / Fournier, Stephanie, Essai d'une théorie unitaire de la prescription, RTD Civ. 1996 at page 339 et seq.
Contract Clauses
1. Failure to Exercise Right of Remedy
Trust Agreement
Remedies, Cumulative and Concurrent

The failure to exercise any such right or remedy will not be construed as a waiver or release of that right or remedy. The Mortgagee's consent to any act or omission by subsequent act or omission or a waiver of the need for such consent in any future or other instance.


2004
No Waivers

Any failure by the Mortgagee to insist upon the strict performance by the Mortgagor of any of the terms and provisions of this Mortgage shall not be deemed to be a waiver of any of the terms and provisions hereof, and the Mortgagee, notwithstanding any such failure, shall have the right thereafter to insist upon the strict performance by the Mortgagor of any and all of the terms and provisions of this Mortgage to be performed by the Mortgagor (...) 


2004
Waivers

The failure of any party to this Trust Agreement at any time or times to require performance of any provision under this Trust Agreement shall in no manner affect the right at a later time to enforce the same performance. A waiver by any party to this Trust Agreement of any such condition or breach of any term, covenant, representation, or warranty contained in this Trust Agreement, in any one or more instances, shall neither be construed as a further or continuing waiver of any such condition or breach nor a waiver of any other condition or breach of any other term, covenant, representation, or warranty contained in this Trust Agreement. 


2007
2. Waiver of Rights
Trust Agreement
Waiver of Exemptions

Subject to any contrary provisions contained in this Mortgage, the Mortgagor hereby waives and releases, to the extent permitted by law:

(a) All benefit that might accrue to the Mortgagor by virtue of any present or future law exempting the Mortgaged Property or any part of the proceeds arising from any sale of the Mortgaged Property. from attachment, levy or sale on execution; and (b) Exemption from civil process; and (c) Redemption or extension of time for payment; and (d) Any right to have the Mortgaged Property marshalled.


2004
Economic Development Agreement
Non Waiver of Remedies

No remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the City is intended to be exclusive of any other available remedy or remedies, but each and every such remedy shall be cumulative and shall be in addition to every other remedy given under this Agreement or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or by statute. 


2007
Investment Agreement
Purchase and Sale of Sale Shares

Each Seller irrevocably waives any rights of pre-emption conferred on them by the Articles of Association of the Company or otherwise over any of the Sale Shares. 


2010
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