23 JANUARY 1264
Reformacio pacis inter Henricum regem Anglie et barones regni sui . . .*a Translation Ludouicus, Dei gratia, Francorum rex, uniuersis, presentes litteras inspecturis, salutem.
Translation 1. Notum facimus quod carissimus consanguineus noster Henricus, illustris rex Anglie, et subscripti barones Anglie in nos compromiserunt, prout continetur in litteris eorum infra scriptis; tenor autem litterarum ipsius regis talis est.
Henricus, Dei gracia, Rex Anglie, dominus Hibernie, et dux Aquitanie omnibus, ad quos presentes littere preuenerint, salutem.
Translation 2. Noueritis quod nos compromisimus in dominum Ludouicum, regem Francorum illustrem, super prouisionibus, ordinationibus, statutis, et obligationibus omnibus Oxoniensibus: et super omnibus contentionibus et discordiis, quas habemus, et habuimus, usque ad festum Omnium Sanctorum nuper preteritum, uersus barones regni nostri, et ipsi aduersus nos occasione prouisionum, ordinationum, statutorum, uel obligationum Oxoniensium predictarum.
Translation 3. Promittentes, et per dilectos et fideles nostros, Willielmum Beletb militem, et Robertum Fulconis1 clericum, de mandato nostro speciali, in animam nostram iurantes, tactis sacrosanctis Euangeliis, quod, quicquid idem rex Francie super omnibus predictis, uel eorum aliquibus, de alto et basso, ordinauerit uel statuerit, nos obseruabimus bona fide; ita tamen, quod idem dominus rex Francie dicat super his dictum suum citra Pentecostem proximo uenturam.
In cuius rei testimonium presentibus litteris sigillum nostrum fecimus apponi.
Translation 4. Nos autem Edwardus, predicti domini regis Anglie primogenitus; Henricus filius Ricardi regis Alemannie; Rogerus. comes Norfolcie et marescallus Anglie; Iohannes de Warenna; Willielmus de Valencia; Hunfridus de Bohun, comes Hereford et Essex; Hugo le Bygoz; Philippus Basset; Iohannes filius Alani;2 Robertus de Bruis;3 Rogerus de Mortuomari; Iohannes de Verdun; Willielmus de Breaus;4 Iohannes de Baillol; Henricus de Percy;5 Reginaldus filius Petri; Iacobus de Aldithele; Alanus de la Zuche;6 Rogerus de Clyfford;7 Hamo Extraneus;8 Iohannes de Gray; Philippus Marmyon; Robertus de Nevile; Iohannes de Vallibus;9 Iohannes de Mouscegros;10 Warinus de Bassingburn;11 Adam de Gesemuth;12 Rogerus de Somery; Richardus Folyot;13 Rogerus de Leyburn14 et Willielmus de Latymero;15 predicto compromisso, per dictum dominum nostrum regem Anglie facte, sicut predictum est, consentimus et iuramus, tactis sacrosanctis Euangeliis, quod, quicquid predictus dominus rex Francie, super omnibus predictis, uel eorum aliquibus, de alto et basso, ordinauerit uel statuerit, obseruabimus bona fide: ita tamen, quod idem dominus rex Francie dicat, super his, dictum suum citra Pentecostem proximo sicut superius est expressum. In cuius rei testmonium presenti scripto, sigillo predicti domini nostri regis Anglie signato, sigilla nostra facimus apponi. Datum apud Wyndeles', dominica próxima post festum Sancte Lucie uirginis, anno Domini m° c c° sexagesimo tertio.c
Littere uero baronum tales sunt.d
Translation 5. Vniuersis, presentes litteras inspecturis, H. Londoniensis,16 W. Wigorniensis episcopi; Simon de Monteforti, comes Leycestrie et senescallus Anglie, Hugo le Despenser, iusticiarius Anglie, Humfridus de Boun iuuenis, H. de Monteforci, S. de Monteforti iuuenis, Adam de Nouo Mercato,17 Petrus de Monteforti, Radulfus Basset de Sapecot, Baldewinus Wake,18 Robertus de Ros,19 Wilielmus le Blond,20 Willielmus Marescallus,21 Walterus de Colevile,22 Ricardus de Grey, Willielmus Bandouft, Ricardus de Tanny,23 Henricus de Hastinggs,24 Iohannes filius Iohannis,25 Robertus de Veteri Ponte, Iohannes de Vescy,26 Nicolaus de Segrave, Galfridus de Lucy, salutem in Domino.
Translation 6. Noueritis quod nos compromisimus in dominum Ludouicum, regem Francie illustrem, super prouisionibus, ordinationibus, statutis, et obligationibus omnibus Oxonie, et super omnibus contentionibus et discordiis, quas habemus, et habuimus, usque ad festum Omnium Sanctorum nuper preteritum, aduersus dominum nostrum regem Anglie illustrem, et ipse aduersus nos, occasione prouisionum, ordinationum, statutorum, uel obligationum Oxoniensium predictorum:
7. Firmiter promittentes, et iurantes, tactis sacrosanctis Euangeliis, quod quidquid idem rex Francie, super omnibus predictis, uel eorum aliquibus, de alto et basso, ordinauerit uel statuerit, nos obseruabimus bona fide; ita tamen quod idem dominus rex Francie dicat, super his, dictum suum citra Pentecostem proximo uenturam.
Actum Londini, die sancte Lucie uirginis, anno Domini m° c c° sexagesimo tertio.
Translation 8. Insuper predictus rex Anglie, ex una parte,e et superius nominati, ex alia parte, barones, de omnibus contentionibus, exortis inter eos post predictum festum Omnium Sanctorum usque in preteritum diem sancte Lucie, occasione predicta in nos compromiserunt, et promiserunt per iuramenta, tactis sacrosanctis Euangeliis, praestita bona fide se seruaturos quicquid statuerimus et ordinauerimus de hiis, uel eorum aliquibus; ita tamen quod citra Pentecostem proximo uenturam, dicamus, super hiis, dictum nostrum, et super omnibus que super rebus, in compromissum deductis, uel circa ipsas interim contigerit attemptari.
Translation 9. Nos uero, partibus propter hoc conuocatis Ambianis dicto rege personaliter, et quibusdam de baronibus per se, et aliis per procuratores comparentibus coram nobis; auditis hinc inde propositis, et etiam defensionibus, ac rationibus partium plenius intellectis, attendentes per prouisiones, ordinationes, statuta, et obligationes Oxonienses, et per ea, que ex eis, et occasione eorum subsecuta sunt, iuri et honori regio plurimum fuisse detractum, regni turbationem, ecclesiarum depressionem, et depreditationem, et aliis personis ipsius regni, ecclesiasticis et secularibus, indigenis, et alienigenis, grauissima dispendia prouenisse; et quod uerisimiliter timebatur ne grauiora contigerint in futurum, communicato bonorum et magnatum consilio.
Translation 10. In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti, predictas prouisiones, ordinationes, et obligationes omnes, quocumque nomine censeantur, et quidquid ex eis, uel occasione eorum subsecutum est, per dictum nostrum, seu ordinationem nostram cassamus et irritamus; maxime cum appareat summum Pontificem eas per suas litteras cassas et irritas nunciasse;27 ordinantes quod tam dictus rex, quam barones, et alii quicumque presenti compromisso consenserunt, et de predictis obseruandis se quoquo modo astrinxerunt, se de eisdem quietent penitus, et absoluant.
Translation 11. Addicimus etiam quod, ex ui, seu uiribus predictarum prouisionum, siue obligationum, seu ordinationum, uel alicuius iam super hoc concesse potestatis a rege, nullus noua statuta faciat, neque iam facta teneat uel obseruet, nec propter non obseruanciam predictorum debeat aliquis alterius capitalis, uel aliter inimicus haberi, uel penam propter hoc aliquam sustinere.
Translation 12. Decernimus etiam, quod omnes littere, super premissis prouisionibus, et eorum occasione confecte, irrite sint et inanes; et ordinamus, quod ipsi regi Anglie restituantur a baronibus et reddantur.
Translation 13. Item, dicimus et ordinamus, quod castra, quecumque fuerint tradita custodienda ad securitatem, seu occasione predictorum, et adhuc sint detenta, libere a dictis baronibus eidem regi reddantur, tenenda ab eodem rege, sicut ea tenebat ante tempus dictarum prouisionum.
Translation 14. Item, dicimus et ordinamus, quod libere liceat predicto regi capitalem iusticiarium, cancellarium, thesaurarium, consiliarios, iustic' minores, uicecomites, quoscumque alios officiales, ac ministeriales regni sui, ac domus sue, preficere, institueref , destituere, et amouere, pro sue libito uoluntatis, sicut faciebat, et facere poterat ante tempus prouisionum predictarum.
Translation 15. Item, retractamus et cassamus illud statutum factum, quod regnum Anglie de cetero per indigenas gubernetur, necnon ut exirent alienigene, non reuersuri; exceptis illis quorum moram fideles regni communiter acceptarent.
Translation 16. Ordinantes per dictum nostrum quod liceat alienigenis morari in dicto regno secure; et quod rex possit alienigenas et indigenas uocare secure ad consilium suum, quod sibi uiderit utiles et fideles, sicut facere poterat ante tempus predictum.
Translation 17. Item, dicimus et ordinamus, quod dictus rex plenam potestatem et liberum regimen habeat in regno suo, et eius pertinentiis; et sit in eo statu, et in ea plenaria potestate, in omnibus et per omnia, sicut erat ante tempus predictum.
Translation 18. Nolumus autem, nec intendimus per presentem ordinationem derogare in aliquo regiis priuilegiis, chartis, libertatibus, statutis, et laudabilibus consuetudinibus regni Anglie, que erant ante tempus prouisionum ipsarum.
Translation 19. Ordinamus etiam quod idem rex predictis baronibus indulgeat et remittat omnem rancorem, quem habet aduersus eos occasione premissorum, et similiter barones eidem; et quod unus alterum occasione premissorum, de quibus in nos extitit compromissum, per se uel per alium de cetero non grauet in aliquo, uel offendat.
Translation 20. Hanc autem ordinationem nostram seu dictum nostrum protulimus Ambianis, in crastino beati Vincentii Martiris, anno Domini m. cc. sexagesimo tertio mense Ianuario.g In cuius rei testimonium presentibus litteris nostrum fecimus apponi sigillum. Actum anno, mense, die et loco predictis.
MISE OF AMIENS 1263
By the Mise of Amiens 1263, Louis IX of France arbitrated the dispute submitted to him by Henry III and Simon de Montfort and his barons. This is a new translation from the Latin text edited by Treharne and Sanders.1
Re-establishment of the peace between Henry, King of England, and the barons of his kingdom made by Louis, King of the French, to whose arbitration the said Henry and his barons mutually submitted (compromiserunt) and agreed to re-establish that peace in relation to the Provisions of Oxford and other disputes obtaining between them.2
Original I, Louis, by the grace of God, King of the French, greet all those who shall examine these documents.
Original 1. We make it known that our dearest cousin Henry, the illustrious King of England, and the barons of England whose names are written below have appointed us arbitrator (in nos compromiserunt) insofar as is contained in their documents below written.
The argument of the king's documents is as follows:
I, Henry, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine, greet all those to whom these present documents shall come.
Original 2. Take note that we have submitted to the arbitration (compromisimus) of Lord Louis, the illustrious King of the French, our dispute about the provisions, ordinances and statutes and all the obligations of Oxford and in relation to all the disputes and differences which we have and have had up to the Feast of All Saints just past, against the barons of our kingdom, and they against us, arising out of the aforesaid provisions, ordinances, statutes or obligations of Oxford.
Original 3. We promised and swore on our soul, touching the Holy Gospels, by our specific command, through our beloved and faithful William Biset, knight, and Robert Fulk, clerk, that we would in good faith abide by whatever the King of France orders or establishes in relation to all the aforesaid or any of them, top to bottom,3 on condition that the Lord King of France publishes his award on these matters by Pentecost next coming.
In witness whereof we have had our seal affixed to the present documents.
Original 4. We too, Edward, eldest son of the said Lord King of England;4 Henry the son of Richard, King of Germany; Roger, Earl of Norfolk and Marshal of England; John de Warenne; William de Valence; Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex; Hugh Bigod; Philip Basset; John Fitzalan; Robert de Brus; Roger Mortimer; John de Verdon; William de Braose; John Balliol; Henry Percy; Reginald Fitzpeter; James de Audley; Alan de la Zouche; Roger de Clifford; Hamo Lestrange; John de Gray; Philip Marmion; Robert de Neville; John de Vaux; John de Musgrove; Warin de Bassingbourne; Adam de Jesmond; Roger de Somery; Richard Foliot; Roger de Leyburn and William de Latimer, agree and swear, touching the Holy Gospels, to the said compromissum, by the decree of our lord, the King of England, as aforesaid, that whatever the aforesaid Lord King of France shall award and ordain in relation to all the aforesaid matters, top to bottom, we will observe in good faith, on condition that the Lord King of France publishes his award on these matters by next Pentecost, as set out above.
In witness whereof we have had our seals affixed to the present document, attested with the seal of our aforesaid Lord King of England.
Given at Windsor on the Sunday after the Feast of St Lucy the Virgin, AD1263.
The documents of the barons are as follows:
Original 5. Greetings to all those who consult these documents from Henry, Bishop of London; Walter, Bishop of Worcester; Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester and Steward of England; Hugh Dispenser, Justiciar of England; Humphrey de Bohun, junior; Henry de Montfort; Simon de Montfort, junior; Adam de Newmarket; Peter de Montfort; Ralph Basset de Sapcote; Baldwin Wake; Robert de Ros; William le Blond; William Marshal; Walter de Colville; Richard de Grey; Willam Bardolf; Richard de Tany; Henry de Hastings; John Fitzjohn; Robert de Vipont; John de Vescy; Nicholas de Segrave and Geoffrey de Lucy.
Original 6./7. Take note that we have appointed Lord Louis, the illustrious King of France, to arbitrate in relation to the provisions, ordinances, statutes and all the obligations of Oxford and in relation to all the disputes and differences which we have and have had up to the Feast of All Saints just past, against our lord, the illustrious King of England, and him against us, arising out of the aforesaid provisions, ordinances, statutes or obligations of Oxford, steadfastly promising and swearing, touching the Holy Gospels, that we will in good faith abide by whatever the King of France orders or establishes in relation to all the aforesaid matters or any of them, top to bottom, on condition that the Lord King of France publishes his award on these matters by Pentecost next coming.
Made at London on St Lucy the Virginís Day, AD1263.
Original 8. Moreover, the aforesaid King of England of the one part and the barons named above of the other part, for the aforesaid reason, have submitted to our arbitration all the disputes which have arisen between them since the aforesaid Feast of All Saints, up to St Lucy's Day just past, and have promised by their oaths, touching the Holy Gospels, that they will in good faith abide by whatever we order or establish in relation to these matters or any of them, on condition that by Pentecost next coming we publish our award on these matters and on everything else which was submitted to the compromissum or which meanwhile happens to have been disputed in relation to the same matters.
Original 9. Indeed, for this purpose we invited the parties to Amiens. The said king appeared in person before us; some of the barons themselves, others through attorneys. After we had listened to the parties' propositions and their defences and having understood their arguments relating to the provisions, ordinances, statutes and obligations of Oxford more fully, and that, as a result, arising from and out of them and following upon them, there were very many detractions from royal rights and honours; perturbation of the kingdom; oppression and plunder of churches; and that other persons of that kingdom, clergy and lay, English and foreign born, had suffered very heavy losses; and that it was genuinely feared that worse would befall in future, we took counsel of the good and great.
Original 10. In the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost, by our award or ordinance we quash and annul all the aforesaid provisions, ordinances and obligations by whatever name they are called, and whatever followed from them or was caused by them, especially since it is clear that His Highness the Pope has in writing declared them quashed and void.
We ordain that the said king and the barons and everyone else who agreed to the present compromissum, and in any way bound themselves to abide by the aforesaid, shall wholeheartedly release and absolve themselves of the same.
Original 11. We also add that no one shall make new statutes by the power and force of those aforesaid provisions or obligations or ordinances or by any power already conceded on this by the king, nor hold to nor observe any already made, nor should anyone, because they have not observed the aforesaid, be held to be anotherís chief or other kind of enemy or suffer any penalty because of that.
Original 12. We also decree that all documents created upon those aforementioned provisions and on account of them are null and void and we ordain that the barons surrender them and they be handed back to the king.
Original 13. We also award and ordain that whatever castles have been handed over to be kept as security or on account of the aforesaid and are still held shall be freely given back by the said barons to the king to be held by the king just as he was holding them before the time of the said provisions.
Original 14. We also award and ordain that the aforesaid king shall be freely allowed to prefer, appoint, dismiss and remove by his own free will, as he did and was empowered to do before the time of the aforesaid provisions, the chief justiciar, the chancellor, the treasurer, the councillors, the lower justiciars, the sheriffs and all the other officials and servants of his kingdom and his household of whatever kind.
Original 15. We also annul and quash that statute made providing that the kingdom of England should thenceforth be governed by those born in England and that those born abroad must leave never to come back except for those who the faithful men of the kingdom should together allow to stay.
Original 16. We decree by our award that the foreign-born should be allowed to stay safely in the said kingdom and that the king be allowed to call English and foreign-born safely to his council, whoever seem useful and faithful to him, as he was able to do before the aforesaid time.
Original 17. We also award and ordain that the said king shall have full power and free authority in his kingdom and over everything that pertains to it; and he shall have the same status and amplitude of power in every way and over everything, just as he did before the aforesaid time.
Original 18. But we do not wish nor do we intend by the present ordinance to derogate in any way from the royal privileges, charters, liberties, statutes and praiseworthy customary laws of the kingdom of England which existed before the time of those provisions.
Original 19. We also ordain that the king shall pardon the aforesaid barons and renounce all resentment which he has against them arising from the premises and the barons the same to him; and that in the future neither shall do any harm to the other arising from the premises, in relation to those things which were included in the compromissum, either personally or through someone else.
Original 20. We have published this our ordinance or award at Amiens on the day after the blessed Vincent the Martyr's Day in the month of January AD1263.
In witness whereof we have had our seal affixed to the present documents.
Done the year, month, day and place aforesaid.
Derek Roebuck, Oxford, 3 January 2011.
* Text: P.R.O. E. 36/275. Liber. B, ff. 35-6 (2-3) (O). Printed: Foedera, I. i. 433-4 (refers to Liber B, f. 2); Stubbs, pp. 395-7, prints only part of para. I and paras. 8-20. Additional Texts: i. Bodley MS. 91, ff. 136v-138 (B). Discussed by N. Denholm-Young, E.H.R. xlix (1934), 85-93; Collected Papers, pp. 86-93. ii. British Museum, Royal MS. 10 B. vi (R). Printed: Foedera, I. i. 434. Papal approval, dated 16 Mar. 1264, for Louis's award in Dorez and Giraud, Les Registres d'Urbain IV, no. 708. See: Simon de Montfort, pp. 205-8, 247; Battle of Lewes, pp. 88-91; King Henry III, pp. 451-5; C. T. Wood, 'The Mise of Amiens and Saint Louis' theory of kingship', French Historical Studies, vi (1970), 300-10; R. F. Treharne, 'The Mise of Amiens, 23 January 1264', in Studies in Medieval History presented to F. M. Powicke (1948), pp. 223-39; J. P. Gilson, 'An unpublished notice of the battle of Lewes', E.H.R. xi (1896), 520-2. There are no paragraphs in the MS. The text has been divided and paragraphs numbered to aid reference. The letters of Henry III and the Lord Edward appear in the patent roll (C.P.R. 1258-66, pp. 303-4; Royal Letters, ii. 251-2) but there is no copy, either of the nobles' letter or of Louis' award, among the chancery rolls. B places the documents in a different order. After a heading in red, Dictum domini regis Francorum, the text continues with para. I. A rubric in red, Compromissio domini regis Anglie et Edwardi sui [filii] in regem Francorum de prouisionibus Oxonie, precedes paras. 2-4. As in O the sentence beginning confectioni (see n. c) is omitted, paras. 8-20 follow para. 4, while paras. 5-7 end the B text. R is a treatise on canon law by Bernardus Bottonus of Parma, d. 1263. At the end of the MS., added in a late thirteenth-century hand, are (a) Decretum regis Francie super prouisionibus Oxonie factis, part of the award of Louis IX; (b) A narrative of the battle of Lewes, printed by J. P. Gilson in E.H.R. xi (1896), 520-2.
a In the margin is the heading Reformacio pacis inter H. regem Anglie et barones regni sui facti per Lodouicum, regem Francorum, in quem predictus Henricus et barones sui compromiserunt et consenserunt ad pacem illam reformandam super prouisionibus Oxonie et aliis discordiis inter ipsos habitis.
b This is an error for Biset (C.P.R. 1258-66, p. 303; Royal Letters, ii. 251).
1 William Biset is called one of the king's butlers in Mar. and Aug. 1263, while Robert Fulk was given robes in Dec. 1263 and was called king's clerk in Mar. 1264 (C.P.R. 1258-66, p. 254; C.R. 1261-4, p. 329; C. Lib. R. 1260-7, pp. 121, 135).
2 Lord of Oswestry and Clun, Salop., Keevil, Wilts. See Baronial Plan; English Baronies; G.E.C. for biographical articles on many of those named in this document.
3 Died 1262; husband of Isabel, sister of Richard, earl of Gloucester; lord of Writtle, Essex (English Baronies, p. 102).
4 Lord of Bramber, Sussex, and Gower in South Wales. A supporter of Richard, earl of Gloucester.
5 Lord of Topcliffe, Yorks. A supporter of Richard, earl of Gloucester.
6 Died 1270; an unchanging royalist, husband of one of the three daughters and coheirs of Roger de Quency, earl of Winchester, who died 1264 (English Baronies, p. 62).
7 Related to the lords of Clifford, Herefordshire, brother-in-law of Roger de Leybourne, an unchanging royalist (ibid., p. 104; see n. 14).
8 An unchanging royalist, son of John L'Estrange of Knockin, Salop., and Hunstanton, Norfolk (King Henry III, pp. 605-6).
9 Son of the heiress of Freiston, Lines., a supporter of Richard, earl of Gloucester.
10 One of the leaders, together with Warin de Bassingbourne, of the band of knights who raided Wallingford castle in Nov. 1264 in an attempt to release the Lord Edward (King Henry III, p. 486).
11 One of the Lord Edward's supporters in March, 1259.
12 Brother and, in 1278, heir of Ralph de Gaugy, lord of Ellingham, Northumberland. Royal sheriff of Northumberland and constable of the castle of Newcastle upon Tyne. Also called Adam de Gesemuth. (English Baronies, p. 41; C.P.R. 1258-66, passim.)
13 Lord of Fenwick, Yorks. Active on the baronial side in 1261-2 (King Henry III, p. 530, n. 3).
14 Steward of the Lord Edward, steward of the royal household, 1263-5, husband of one of the coheiresses of the lordship of Appleby, Westm. (English Baronies, p. 104; see n. 7).
15 Lord of Corby, Lincs., Scampston, Yorks., active for the king (G.E.C. vii. 460-1).
c Foedera adds, in italics, confectioni istius instrument interfuerunt Iohannes de Chishull, Willelmus de Wilton, frater I. de Darlington, magister Ern[aldus] cancellarius Regis Alemannie, Rogerus de Messenden et plures alii. This paragraph, which is in Rot. Pat. 48 Hen. III, pt. i, m. 18 (printed Royal Letters, ii. 252) is in neither O nor B. Chishull became chancellor in Nov. 1263; Wilton, a judge, died fighting for the king at Lewes; Arnold de Wetzler was Richard of Cornwall's chancellor in Holland; Messenden was a royal clerk. The inclusion of this paragraph in Foedera is proof that Rymer consulted the patent roll as well as O.
d In the MS. this is included in the text and is not a heading.
16 Henry de Sandwich, supported Simon de Montfort in 1263 (Baronial Plan, passim).
17 Husband of one of the coheirs of the barony of Redbourne, Lincs., steward of the household 7 July 1264-20 Mar. 1265 (English Baronies, p. 75).
18 Lord of Bourne, Lincs., one of the leaders of the disinherited (ibid., p. 107; King Henry III, passim).
19 Lord of Wark, Northumberland, brother of William de Ros of Helmsley, Yorks. An active supporter of de Montfort in the latter half of 1264 (C.P.R. 1258-66, passim; English Baronies, pp. 53, 149).
20 Lord of Ashfield, Suffolk, died at Lewes, standard bearer of de Montfort (English Baronies, p. 4; King Henry III, pp. 449-50).
21 Son of the coheir of the barony of Hockering, Norfolk, baronial supporter in the Midlands (English Baronies, p. 53; Baronial Plan, passim).
22 A small tenant in Lincolnshire, summoned to attend the parliament which met in Jan. 1265 (Book of Fees, passim; C.Mis.Inq. i, 777; doc. 41A. Baronial Plan, p. 335 mistakenly calls him William of Coleville).
23 Tenant of lands at Stapleford Tawney, Essex; 1261 keeper of Essex and Herts., July 1264 custos pacis in Essex (C.P.R. 1258-66, pp. 163, 394; C.R. 1261-64, p. 390).
24 One of the leaders of the disinherited (King Henry III, passim; doc. 44).
25 One of the leading opponents of the king in 1261, associated with Robert de Vipont, Nicholas de Segrave, Geoffrey de Lucy, and others. June 1264 sheriff of Westmorland (C.P.R. 1258-66, pp. 195, 322; Baronial Plan, passim).
26 Lord of Alnwick, Northumberland, supporter of de Montfort in May, 1263 (ibid., p. 302; English Baronies, p. 103).
e Ex una parte om. B.
27 Docs. 32-4, 36.
f instituere B; om. O.
g mcclxiii mense Ianuario in cuius rei testimonium B. This, in modern dating, is 1264. See doc. 10, n. 5; doc. 30, n.
1 RF Treharne and IJ Sanders Documents of the Baronial Movement of Reform and Rebellion 1258-1267 Oxford, OUP 1973.
2 This heading is taken from the margin.
3 Alto et basso is a stock phrase in the medieval compromissum in France, Anne Lefebvre-Teillard 'Arbiter, Arbitrator seu Amicabilis Compositor' (2008) 3 Revue de l'Arbitrage 369-388, 379 and still in mid-15th century England, Henry Anstey Munimenta Academica, or Documents Illustrative of Academical Life and Studies at Oxford London, Longmans, Green (Rolls Series) 1868 II pp550-551 and 637-638. The fullest treatment I can find is in Ducange: Glossarium Manuale ad Scriptores Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis ex Magnis Glossariis Caroli du Fresne, Domini du Cange, et Carpentarii etc Halle, JJ Gebaver's Widow and Son, 1772 I, sub ALTUS. That suggests that the primary meaning is 'whatever jurisdiction, from highest to lowest', omnimodam jurisdictionem, omnimodam potestatem and then by extension 'unconditional'.
4 The inclusion of heirs was a formality in the common-form compromissum but, of course, it is much more than a formality in this one.